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Teknologi Tepat Guna & Dunia Alternatif

by Dr. Nao Tanaka

about the book

Keistimewaan yang menonjol pada abad ke-20 adalah keanekaragaman produk yang dikembangkan oleh teknologi modern, termasuk komoditas, mesin, fasilitas, dan bangunan yang semakin melimpah di sekitar kita. Tanpa produk modern, hidup kita seolah tidak lengkap. Produk teknologi modern memiliki karakter khusus: sekali dipakai, pemakainya merasa produk tersebut adalah kebutuhan mutlak dan tidak bisa hidup tanpanya. Padahal, kita sebenarnya bisa hidup tanpa produk tersebut atau tingkat kebutuhannya sangat minim. Jika ada produk tertentu yang menjadi populer, maka infrastruktur, sistem sosial, kebiasaan, dan perilaku masyarakat yang berbasis pada pemakaian produk tersebut akan semakin terbentuk sehingga produk akhirnya menjadi kebutuhan mutlak. Umumnya, teknologi untuk memproduksi dan mengontrol produk modern hanya dikuasai oleh perusahaan yang memiliki teknologi spesifik serta fasilitas produksi berskala besar. Sebaliknya, masyarakat selaku pemakai produk hanya menjadi pembeli dan penerima yang pasif. Padahal, teknologi seharusnya diaplikasikan dan dikontrol oleh masyarakat sendiri. Menilik sejarah manusia, kemunculan teknologi modern bisa dianggap sebagai periode yang menghabiskan energi fosil dalam waktu sangat singkat dan memicu masalah lingkungan hidup yang tidak dapat ditolerir Bumi kita. Apakah kemakmuran semacam ini yang kita inginkan dan membuat kehidupan kita lebih bahagia? Secara umum, teknologi tepat guna dapat didefinisikan sebagai teknologi yang sesuai dengan kondisi di mana teknologi tersebut digunakan/diterapkan, baik dari aspek sosial, ekonomi, maupun budaya, sehingga masyarakat setempat mudah berpartisipasi dan bisa memenuhi kebutuhan mereka secara efektif. Konsep teknologi tepat guna dilatarbelakangi oleh proyek bantuan internasional atau bilateral yang sebelumnya sering gagal karena teknologi yang dikembangkan di negara maju langsung dialihkan ke negara berkembang yang memiliki kondisi sosial, ekonomi, dan budaya yang sangat berbeda.

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